Wednesday, September 30, 2015

U.S. Post-Moral Era Impact on Foreign Policy (with video)

When the Clinton and Obama administrations with the help of the U.S. Supreme Court progressed into turf traditionally considered immoral and moved a post-industrial nation into a post-morality status with homosexual marriage added to an existing corpus of corruption of moral norms such as abortion, making effective foreign policy became challenging. For who in the third world would really want to be like the U.S.A. morally? While the Clinton drip of e-mails continues her descent in the polls, as the Pope presents a sacerdotal priesthood militant hierarchy of imperialism as an elite caste of Christians is rife with child abusers, the public is assaulted with broadcast media intimacy that in prior eras who have comprised pornography. What is lacking is good macro-economic sense as wealth increases its concentration. As a sense of sin decays, so does democracy and democratic responsibility. When democracy transitions to moral irresponsibility wealth and power concentrates as the masses are misled to believe that the financial insiders are responsible for maintaining political health instead of themselves.

In most of the Muslim world the prospects for reaching an equivalent post-moral status, beyond good and evil. within the next century, are quite poor. A completely corrupt broadcast media is required for mass brainwashing support for bum-rushing decadent laws along with a dominant libertine judiciary to force the masses into immoral acquiescence. In some cases additional factors such as contraception and a high standard of living for women are required to get sufficient support for abortion. The Muslim world simply hasn't comparable social institutions to compel immorality on the people as does the U.S.A. Neither have undemocratic societies a good prospect for selecting corrupt and ineffective political leadership sold out to wealthy minority interests in show business that prefer dope, homosexuality, abortion and extended life spans through fetal research or even cloning and cyborg transition.

It is possible to simple make new, positive, rational political planks to move toward moral upgrade and ecological economics with lowest possible entropy increase to earth consistent with technological and material progress-it does require intelligence rather than pervasive destruction of traditional morality.

American foreign policy has decreasingly plausible match-ups to foreign social interests such that would bring them to mate with the immoral condition of the District of Columbia, Boston and etc. that are formative of American immoral conditioning through politics and the media.

In the post-moral era the U.S.A. has a detached from scriptural reality Christian evangelical community with a pre-tribulationist end-times theory waiting for Armageddon and rapture into thin air. They have wrong eschatology. They believe the Beast of Revelation could be President Obama, Hillary Clinton, an evil clown, a foreign political leader or CEO of a major corporation etc. , yet it was the first century Roman Emperor Nero-working tribulation on Peter Paul and other Christians. There are plenty enough real things in politics to worry about and fix to chase after spore of deficient hermeneutical method. If millions are living voodoo-cracker eschatology expecting a Sky Dragon , marks of the beast, and Babylon the Great Whore (some wonder, could it be the U.S.A., China or Iraq?-probably it was first century Jerusalem approaching 70 a.d.) )to appear like the Great Pumpkin before they fly like O.J. out of the Hertz rental car seat into the sky (an ancient t.v. ad) they will be handicapped in seeming to have political competence. Some enterprising politicians would likely try to make their expectations come true and brand people with 666 after the zombie fad of atheism debauches itself into the desert dirt.

Wrong end-times theory evangelicals may have reasonable morals yet their political competence is lacking. How can people that believe the social environment is going to be ruled by Satan before Armageddon have anything beside an escapist, pessimistic point of view wherein they hope for rapturous removal to heaven? In fact the tribulation and Armageddon occurred in the first century a.d.,. Jesus had established the kingdom of God and a slow build over history to a point where a majority of the world population would become Christian and set it into motion before his crucifixion. It is a kind of growth prospect over the long run comparable I suppose to that of Wall Street's historical long term value rise.

Catholics, Britons and Muslims all comprise extraterritorial, global imperial interests with political orientations profoundly different from nationalist democracy in the U.S.A. not to mention India. Britain is of course America's mentor in immorality and led the way with influences such as Elton John to homosexual marriage. Actual American values with the post-tribulationism or rather post-millennialism of Puritans like Jonathan Edwards are lacking. Defenders of democracy and morality have faded away as corporate interests have promoted wealth globally mostly for themselves and demoted morality. The complexity of finding a democratic core in the United States and forming a pragmatic and moral foreign policy seems remote.

Cold financial calculations such as that of taking historically Russian Ukraine and transferring ownership to global corporatism through a puppet proxy state of Ukraine must have guided the Clinton administration's leverage on Boris Yeltsin. The Obama administration has urged Ukraine to deny Russian even the Eastern side of the Dnepr lands. What should have happened, and still could, is peaceful Russian separatism and eventually east-west coalition into commercial and social trading and business informal merger.

The post-moral policy of the Obama administration is influencing events in Afghanistan. Kunduz has been retaken by the Taliban, and why logically not? Disaffection from American immorality along with withdrawal of direct U.S. combat troops to occupy the nation helped the Taliban rather than U.S. and allied territorial prospects in Afghanistan. American perfidy in the Middle East seems more emergent with Syrian, Kurdish, Saudi Arabian, Egyptian, Israeli, Iraqi and Iranian relations. It seems that it must be more than a little challenging for people of those nations to trust the U.S. at all, though it would be impolitic to say so.

America's European 'partners' have experienced the post-moral policies from the U.S.A. producing fruits such as Syrian mass-migration to Europe. The post-moral era seems to stimulate end-of western-civilization social values, and the left appears to value that prospect, while people of the second and third world tend to admire the wealth owned preponderantly by a small percent of Americans and devalue the immorality, if they are from a nation with any sort of morally reinforcing values. National values really matter. As in the I.Q. phenomenon where one doesn't know what one doesn't know and doesn't have an awareness of being in the dark, a society may lose moral and national political values and become entirely unaware of that. It may even be difficult to remind a decaying society that they are going on a path that does not lead to prosperity, security or eternal life with the Lord.

The administration policies affect the security of Christians in Nigeria as well as the Middle East who have fled due to terror and government purging. Clinton-Obama policies have built up deviant sex and broadcast media language use and decreased public perceptions of Christian values. As the administrations seem to try to degrade Christianity nationally that harms global prospects for Christian evangelization and conversions for proselytes. It makes it easier for political actions against Christians abroad as it is believed that D.C. is itself a Satan led anti-moral leader.

While it appears bad enough it is remarkable that post-millennialist interpretation of scripture such as Kenneth Gentry has described in 'He Shall Have Dominion' views the long-range prospects optimistically. At some point a turn to Christian moral norms and ethics will transition into being as a majoritarian Christian global population develops. With ecological economic evolution and godly democracy for a people mostly living within the kingdom of God the future looks bright. It is remarkable though, how many vicissitudes the world goes through as its leaders lack enough good information and faith to even consider coordinated and effective remedies for the world of challenges.
https://youtu.be/AtYdJ_NVtoE


Tuesday, September 29, 2015

Alternative Energy Prospects Increasing

Discoveries in alternative energy production still require implementation of product. The state of Alaska ought to invest something in fuel cell power plants in remote locations to power toaster-incinolet privies and microwave ovens. All of the wood-burning stoves and fires for cooking in the world's poorest villages could be replaced by several fuel cells per settlement along with a fuel cell, wind and or solar power if donors wanted to develop such a planetary infrastructure.

https://badgerherald.com/news/2015/09/29/uw-discovery-could-make-hydrogen-a-more-affordable-alternative-energy-source/

Solar water stills and other technologies to make life better for the poor might be other areas to invest in.

Monday, September 28, 2015

Does Latino Pope Francis Recognize U.S. Border Sovereignty?

An Argentinian, Latino Pope that said all immigrants including illegals should be treated equally while speaking in the United States did not perhaps recognize the equal treatment of the law for all people in the sovereign lands of the U.S.A. It was as if people breaking the law should be given special status and regarded as not breaking the law.

It is a rather amusing topic for a Latino Pope to be counseling the nation on behalf of illegal immigration of Latinos to the U.S.A. as if entirely Latino countries south of the U.S. border aren't enough and they need to take over the U.S.A. It is a fascinating historical issue since Argentina purged its nation more completely of aboriginal Americans than any other in the western hemisphere, and also had a semi-fascist military junta that disappeared lots of people and sought to conquer the Malvinas Islands. Failing in that effort during which time Francis was not especially outspoken in opposition evidently he can look to expand his flock northward into the U.S.A. through the soft underbelly of liberalism.

Perhaps I am not writing about this issue very well-it really is rich in history.

Pope Alexander VI issued a bull-the first Inter Caetera before the Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494. The bull banned;  "all persons, no matter what rank, estate, degree, order or condition to dare, without your special permission (the Pope) to go for the sake of trade or any other reason whatever, to the said islands and countries after they have been discovered and found by your envoys or persons sent out for that purpose."

http://www.thehistoryreader.com/medieval-history/treaty-tordesillas-1494-decision-still-influencing-todays-world/

The Pope claimed half the the world-that was a good example of imperialism. When England and other nations developed good navies and effectively dominated much of North America while the Spanish took much of the south an  America treaty was reached in 1670 whereby, in effect, a line east-west was made across the Atlantic with the Northern part going to the Protestant British and the southern portion to the Spanish Catholics, Habsburgs. Some people still want it all evidently

There is indeed a rich history in Pope Francis seeming to flunk recognition of border integrity and freedom from Southern expansion northward. I tend to think that if the U.S.A. formed in the South, and the Spanish took the North, that Pope Francis as a Philadelphia Argentinian would be arguing in support of Hispanic migration south in order to expand the Catholic realm of imperial influence. As Pope over a former great world imperium via proxies global domination is still latent desire. Not that all of the people of the world shouldn't be Christians-they should. The Burj Caliphate replaced the World Trade Towers with the will of those that want to expand a Caliphate to global domination by a false prophet. Neither of those imperial entities are just plain Christian with Jesus as Lord, yet the Catholics are probably close to the spirit of God than Muslims. Well, at least neither are former British imperialists seeking global domination through finance.

In my opinion people are poor for circumstantial and historical reasons involving a lot of history geography and a prevalent inner drive toward imperialism wherein everyone wants to be at the top of their own social pyramid instead of growing a garden.

What Does Burj Khalifa Symbolism in Islam?

The tallest building in the world known as the Burj Hkalifa has symbolic meaning to Muslims. I suppose it means something like Burgeoning Caliphate to westerners. It is no wonder that ISIS also swelled into prominence during the construction phase and opening of the tallest building.

http://www.factfixx.com/2012/01/04/burj-khalifa-tallest-building/

Quoting from Islamic world.net on the meaning of khalifa obe finds 'KHALIFAH is an Arabic word literally meaning "one who replaces someone else who left or died" (English: caliph). In the context of Islam, however, the word acquires a narrower meaning. The Muslim Khalifa is the successor (in a line of successors) to Prophet Muhammad's position as the political, military, and administrative leader of the Muslims"

and 

"Prophet Muhammad 
said:"There will be Nabuwa with Rehma (prophethood with Mercy). The there will be Khilafah with Ba’yah (pledge). Then Allah will change it when He wishes. Then there will be Mulkan ‘Adoodan (Rule by force). Then Allah will change it when He wishes. Then there will be Mulkan Jabriya (against people’s will). Then Allah will change it when He wishes. Then there will be Khilafah Ala Minhajin Nabuwa (on the path of prophethood). The earth and the sky will bestow their treasures." (Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Courtesy of Khilafah.Org)"

Saturday, September 26, 2015

U.S. Public Debt at 105% of G.D.P.

Econoblog has published an informative piece on the public debt 'overhang'-something like an avalanche snow cornice I suppose, that may account for the slow economic growth.

http://www.economonitor.com/blog/2015/09/united-states-government-debt-is-in-uncharted-territory-2/

There is also an ecosphere degradation overhang-its much more than just global atmospheric heating. The mass extinction of species is in a sense a loss of a data bank and library of critters that could be helpful for populating exo-planets with life (it ought to be more than just humans and robots).

The nation needs to transition to ecological economics, yet that requires intelligent government leadership, so I suppose it is only a joke to consider.

'Beast of the Revelation Identified'-A good eschatology video

The video on the identity of the Beast of the Revelation has excellent academic quality. For many Christians it would be a Copernican Revolution for their understanding. It is rather amazing to live for a long time and learn new things about Christianity that change the way one views areas of thought one believed settled. Video length 145 minutes.




Foreign Migrant Labor Mainly Benefits Imperial Management

It seems as if mass foreign migrations, often illegal, usually benefit management. Labor supply and demand is comparable to product supply and demand. international trade agreements exist to prevent dumping of product that would harm foreign management/investors, yet politicians and some clerics reinforce dumping of migrant labor that is harmful to labor supply in the nation receiving the migrants. Since the world isn’t primarily a commune and ‘rich countries’ aren’t either and instead have real supply and demand capital systems, moving large numbers of poor workers to ‘rich nations’ simply harms labor values locally and globally.


Economic and social theorists ought not be so intellectually disingenuous as to ignore the perennial intervention in labor market value with that result in dumping cheap migrant labor. capitalism is not really then given a chance to work as it should with so much ‘goaltending’ keeping labor value as low as possible politically.


The slowest to improve the plight of the poor is the result of effective imperial quality politics driving international mass migrations. The way capitalism is supposed to work is that when the labor market tightens in a nation wages go up. Management that wants cheap labor move their factory to a country with cheap labor supply and the poor in that country have better lives. Because relocating factories can be costly there is a certain degree of social stability as management/investors are recalcitrant about moving. A stable society and population has less crime and better prospects for education and compilation of micro-capital. The costs of government are less with social stability, zero unemployment and excellent wages.


Imperialist prefer social chaos and confusion with low or no wages, cheap labor supply and poverty with political power and wealth concentrated. Creating political situations that cause mass migrations accelerates conditions harmful to labor and of benefit to management. Generally lawlessness and disorder harms the poor more than the rich Orderly progress with rational expectations support hope for a better life.


Because some would perhaps confuse the state of Christians being free from the law and given to live by the spirit, in the modern context, I will note that the law that Christians are free from is not contemporary civil law, but the Jewish laws that existed in ancient Israel. Those laws could be inaccurately complied with even without the right spiritual relationship to God. Jesus Christ enabled those of faith in the Lord to live in the spirit and fulfill all the requirements of the law through the saving grace of Jesus Christ, the Father and Holy Spirit. The destruction of the Jewish temple in 70 A.D. by the Romans accentuated the point. The ancient laws and sacrifices at the temple had been surpassed.


Christians are obligated to obey civil law except where it conflicts with laws of God as given in scripture. Jesus said to render unto Caesar what is Caesar's, and unto God things that belong to God. Plainly that has more than one meaning, for Christians belong to God, and the lost belong to the world.


The word for land or earth was pronounced 'gay' in ancient Greek (spelled GE). The temporal experience and the land comprising it that the unsaved lust after isn't heaven, and the experience of it won't go on forever. While the worldly are spiritually dead and must live under the law, except so far as they choose not to as anarchists, it isn't the ancient Jewish law that they must live under; it is that of the civil government where they are. Laws in a democracy are the property of the people, made by and for the people, until the laws are corrupted by power, or the people themselves become corrupt and incapable of making and enacting just law. Spiritual correctness prevailing in a society requires fewer laws; love one's neighbor as thyself.


It is possible for governments and donors to provide training and emergency help to poor nations in order to allow them to help themselves. Yet when cheap labor travels to ‘rich nations’ to expand the labor supply and lower wages there is less need to look abroad for cheap labor to exploit. Exploiting cheap labor is the imperial way-that is what slavery in the America was about after all-importing slaves was made illegal very soon in the history of the U.S.A. as a democracy.

The longest path to ending planetary poverty runs through a perpetuation of shifting mass cheap labor about from country to country. Destroying social structures in poor countries that do exist will require extra time and cost to bring into a stable state of order in they ever attain a better standard of living. Like military units with a stable history being disinclined to perpetuate war crimes in comparison to newly formed and irregular forces, civil societies that are made into ghettos or destabilized and made to lose many to emigration are challenging to restore to a stable condition. Shifting about of mass migrations of labor in the modern context perpetuates rather than relieves poverty. Imperialists welcome cheap labor and degradation of civil equality.

Friday, September 25, 2015

John Boehner Considering a Run for the White House?

With many republican and Independent voters mildly dissatisfied with the field of candidates running for the Presidency in 2016 Speaker John Boehnor's decision to resign his post may indicate a potential run for the White House.

Bill Clinton entered the 1992 election only about January 1992 unfortunately overshadowing the late Senator Tongass' earlier entry into the virtually absent field of Democratic candidates. While it would have been better if the royal families of Clintons and Bushes had not ever run for the Oval Office viewing it as a family bad of Lay's potato chips in that they can't stop at just one, John Boehner may have the general public trust to serve credibly in the White House if the Trump candidacy or that of Ben Carson doesn't rev up sustainable public interest through fall ratings season.

Entry of a candidate into the dragon flames of campaign pressure might be comfortable for one already in the octogon of electoral combat.

http://www.vox.com/2015/9/25/9397467/john-boehner-resign-reason

U.S.-China Collective Accord; No Internet Economic Spying

Some actually believe that China and the United States will not conduct economic espionage in cyberspace as a new bilateral agreement stipulates. No hackers, no crime, government owned businesses included or excluded? etc. and additional interesting items to consider make it seem like some sort of plastic watermelon.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/the-us-and-china-agree-not-to-conduct-economic-espionage-in-cyberspace/2015/09/25/1c03f4b8-63a2-11e5-8e9e-dce8a2a2a679_story.html

If the world has three fundamental collective ad hoc unions including investors, government bureaucrats and ordinary people, maybe two of the three have a balance of economic power tipping the scale in a particular direction. It does seem though that the U.S. Government doesn't  trust capitalism enough to let Lunar development of ecosphere industrial research adn development plots of a thousand acres each be offered to anyone in the world that has the ability to industry-stead on the moon. Monopoly is not well regarded in capitalist theory and competition is; so why the continuing U.S. monopoly on Lunar development such that nothing ever happens?

Thursday, September 24, 2015

Shouldn't the Pope Have Supported Legal Immigration?

The Roman Pontiff in a speech to Congress in D.C. appeared to say that the U.S.A. is hostile to immigrants, and failed to recognize the difference between legal and illegal immigrants. It is just wrong for clerics to support law breakers subverting civil order and rational government; political leaders have enough trouble as it is. Ordinary people deserve rational expectations about demographics and environment to form a continuum that is true and stable.  Not every American is rich...many live from day to day.

The United States is a nation where all people had immigrant ancestors at some point yet that does not mean that a democracy ought to have open borders and no effective civil justice and equal opportunity for the citizens of a nation in a demographically challenged world replete with terrorists.

http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/09/24/us-pope-usa-congress-idUSKCN0RO1O320150924

Plainly the world need ecological economics engineering to syntegrate with politics and political thought in order to transition to sustainability, yet subverting existing populations and their educational base and cultural politics and initiatives to advance to more modern structures able to meet demographic stress on the ecosphere. Mass population migrations defeating social planning efforts for conservation, education, employment and sustainability don't help if they are mass illegal movements.

The Pope said to welcome the stranger in our midst. True-if he isn't law breaking and complies with law and order. When I visited the Vatican during the reign of Pope John Paul the II I was initially denied entry for wearing shorts. I went around the block, changed clothes and returned. Even strangers must comply with house rules.

Loving one's neighbors as oneself does not mean letting them move in and take possession. First one should try to fix the neighbor's place if it doesn't work-and that should be ecospheric economics. President Obama stimulated civil war in Syria for years causing quite directly the present flight of hundreds of thousands to Europe (because it is richer than Africa in some senses and hence a better place to go).

The Pope should have just stayed with criticizing the President's lack of christian morality in forcing through homosexual marriage. The President doesn't realize the importance of marriage in that it is a paradigm of the church uniting with God through the Son as the bride of Christ. For the church to take up sin as official doctrine as some have (e.g. the P.C. U.S.A.) is to send a lot of people to hell.

Everyone wants to emphasize the benefits of salvation while few describe the terrible penalties for failure to follow the correct way of the Lord.

Wholistic Extra-Terrestrial Ecosphere Manufacture Goals

Wholistic Extra-Terrestrial Ecosphere Manufacture Goals

Contemporary science has learned a lot about ecosystems and biology. On the Earth however there is no opportunity to apply all that knowledge to create a complete living ecosphere; for one planetary ecosphere already exists. So science without any practical opportunity to develop an ecosphere on this world must look to others to apply concepts as practical works.                                         image credit: N.A.S.A.


Science is not exclusively owned by government of course; the private sector applies science to manufacture items of value and also funds research. The government could take a small step for mankind in zoning ecosphere manufacture plots on the moon of a thousand acres each in a variety of lunar environments for the use of any corporate research and development entity that wants to locate a grow your own ecosphere on the moon. No nation should be excluded from the opportunity to create a demonstration ecosphere on the Moon of the Earth if it is willing to try.

There is a lot more barren rock with no atmosphere in the solar system than human friendly, verdant worlds. Ecosphere Engineering needs to get started on learning how to really make green environments where there is only cold death. Maybe some of the articficial ecospheres will have a different color motif for photosynthesis, or base growth on heat from a planetary core, microwaves reflected from a star or etc.

Obviously there is an obligatory need to roundly trash talk politicians and human leadership as idiots, greedy varmints, ##!! etc. I trust that recognition is sufficient to allow me to proceed. Plainly investing in practical works is not a normal government activity these days in a psychological age of fracture with plenty of Hollywood special effects, drugs and globalism.

The U.S. Government as unofficial owners of the moon by primitive right of first dibs should make industrial lunar plots of a thousand acres for ecosphere building available to anyone that can get to the moon and build one. It would be rather like the frontier homestead program adapted for large-scale ecosphere experimentation.

There are innumerable and different approaches to building a self-contained ecosphere on a planet or moon with zero atmosphere and near absolute zero temperatures. Little thousand acre experimental plots could provide room for proof of concept manufacture. There is no requirement that an extra-terrestrial body be entirely converted to human habitability. It would be sufficient to manufacture cellular habitats of a thousand acres or so in such quantity as is deemed useful.

Building self-sustaining real ecospheres in extra-terrestrial local would require ecosphere engineering of an intellectual scale challenging to the do it by the book bureaucratic collectives flourishing on Earth today. What is learned on the Moon could benefit recovery of the Earths dwindling ecosphere as well as being used as a way to improve human prospects on Mars.

Human beings need to improve their use of natural ecospheres such that they are more efficient, more conservative and reduce added entropy to a minimum while continuing production. Even so expansion of new ecospheric regions around the solar system is requisite for sustainable human development. Recovery of a healthy Earth ecosphere, perhaps using fishing as a measuring tool-the earth should attain fish population health like that existing in 12,000 B.C.-ought to be a goal of a mature ecosphere manufacturing industry.


Government tends to want to encourage construction of faster space engines and flimsy Martian temporary housing yet if humans arriving at distant places off-world have the same inability to build healthy ecospheres and just consume and destroy them as at present, their prospects will be pretty poor as they are in effect running from themselves and their own nasty habits.

Wednesday, September 23, 2015

Concerning Governance of the Tongue

In about 1655 Richard Baxter published one of four volumes of Practical Works titled 'Ethics'. Baxter was something of a brilliant reformed theologian. He described time as being the place where we have the opportunity to experience life. A unification of space and time such as they are each dimensions was a common social perception then, surprisingly. His brilliance pertained to practical christian concerns generally, as he was cast out of the church along with other independent minded churchmen by the Cromwell administration and he did not have much of a library to take about the countryside with him. I have made a few comments about chapter none of 'Ethics' as they concern contemporary states of affairs generally.

Concerning Chapter 9: Directions for the Government of the Tongue
Baxter cites psalm 7-4 "our lips are own own, who is lord over us" as an example of those that regard words and thoughts as trivial and of little consideration, who then use language inconsiderably. The raving broadcast media is exemplary in that regard with demotic slurring and morphing of words often to confuse truth with falsehood. If words and thoughts were indeed of such trivial concern it would be a different world than it is.
I think that the basic casualty of slop-talk by the media is the civilian properties of rights and democracy. With mass confusion political power becomes concentrated and is regarded as a lighthouse in the fog. Voters may elect prominent objects that appear through the fog for a time yet never organize or think for themselves. In the collective broadcast news media class creative social destruction enables the concentration of wealth and plutocratic imperialism globally. Media slop-talk runs roughshod over individualism and individual (bright) political ideas such as ecological economic development.

Words and language are in a sense mankind's best attribute; they express intelligent thought and content of the mind. Words can be used to praise the glory of God, and they can also be used to debase the soul and create envy and strife.

The Holy Spirit is a remarkable concept to regard. God as a spirit; the primary spirit is of course known to humanity as three persons, and we are saved through the Son, yet the Father is too spirit, as is the Son who took on flesh...

Spirit that can create or phenomenalize matter and energy in space-time is concerned that humanity (so far as I know) advance to intelligent thought cognizant of spirit. Falling back into creatureliness and a troubled sleep as existential clumps of mass without regard to godliness, rational governance of mind or having a right relationship to the Spirit (Father) through the Son with the help of the Holy Spirit is a prevailing malady for much of society. One can hear in the mass broadcast media archetypes of the social collective ungodliness that is like Platonic language forms from a broadcast media realm of word forms manifested in ordinary imitation as little particular forms by the masses in ordinary intra-social speech. When the government itself corrupts the tongue and works evil, when sin has itself taken over governance of social discourse, it is not good.


The tongue may be used directly for sin, such as with blasphemy, false doctrine (that probably includes pre-tribulationism and dispensationalism), ridiculing godliness, lying, forbidding preaching of the word, boasting, talking about common things too much in a holy setting, tempting to sin, carnal handling of holy things, traducing superiors (this does not include truthful and objective evaluation of and participation in peer proceedings of democracy or of those appointed to serve the public in office who fail to execute their tasks competently and honestly, or to publish opinion about public policy, international relations, environment and of the conduct of those in office, and of those concerned with creating public problems of commensurate scale. In fact for Christians to fail to speak their opinion about public issues in a democracy when they know the facts about an issue accurately, and to allow wrong policy to proceed with maladministration and maladministrators is a kind of sin of omission by the citizen to fail to perform his or her civic or ecclesiastical duty.)

Tuesday, September 22, 2015

Fish In Ocean 50% Down from 1970

Scientists have found that fish have dropped in quantity by 50% since 1970.
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/ocean-fish-numbers-cut-in-half-since-1970/

That's bad for fishing prospects with the world population maybe doubled since then.

On the other hand, wages for white males have stagnated since then too, and there are only as many Americans working now as there were in 1977.

http://www.blackstarnews.com/us-politics/budget/toward-the-looming-us-fiscal-crisis.html

On the bright side though, in 11,500 B.C. fishing was good on Alaska rivers and early Americans caught and maybe traded salmon.
 http://www.csmonitor.com/Science/2015/0922/Ice-age-Alaskans-dined-on-salmon-say-researchers

As a practical matter the broadcast media psychs the collective so they believe whatever they are told about national prospects to a certain extent making people believe that worse is better and decay is progressive.

If ecological economics could be used to make self-supporting, self-sustaining green living ecospheres with fish and a variety of species on the Moon or Mars, that would be encouraging and dissipate the sense of eco-doom quite a bit. In science fiction at least, anything is possible.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecological_economics


Sunday, September 20, 2015

'Directions for the Government of the Senses'

Governing the senses, rather than being governed by the senses, is an implicit human characteristic of reason. Reason is a process of mind sorting through a large body of sense data that is evaluated to comprehend and implement behavior in best self-interest. Chapter eight of Richard Baxter's 'Ethics' concerns governing the senses. It is another brilliant essay in 'Ethics'. I think Baxter's acute philosophical thought would surprise many philosophers. After all, Baxter wrote this book circa 1655-a contemporary of Descartes and prior to Hume and Sartre. Perennial ideas concerning mind, reason, perceptions, sense data and the relation between the temporal world and the atemporal eternal reality from which the Universe condensed or precipitated perhaps phenomenally like a hologram or more substantially as a steady state of quantum entanglement of energy packets are of continuing interest and have beginning for the west with pre-Socratic philosophers besides the obvious Athenians Socrates, Plato and Democritus. Baxter's applied use of the salient philosophical concepts is entirely within a theological paradigm however and might easily slip past the review of overly technical contemporary philosophers and philologists interested in the history of ideas.

To a certain extent encountering sense-data is a forced rather than an optional experience. A mind without sense data input fundamentally would need to be non-existent or without a body and hence non-existent. It may be possible for a human spirit via the grace of God to exist without a body, however the human mind seems to be a concatenation of human physiology existing as a processor of information at a conscious and subconscious level.

The philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer wrote in his book 'The Fourfold Roots of Reason' a piece examining the relationship of mind to sense data. That is a perennial philosophical line of inquiry. Bishop Berkeley for instance developed ideaism (aka idealism) through the consideration of the mind to sense data relation). Schopenhauer showed that mind can input and reconfigure sense data in such a way as to get more out of sense data than the mere physical input provides. The example he used was that of 3-D vision.

Sense data actually provides flat-screen 2-dimensional visual input and the brain with a little training uses the different angles of input from the eyes being set apart to create a virtual 3-D appearance. That has since been a well-researched field of study that has been broadly applied to horses and creatures that look up from the ground or down from above and so forth regarding the position of their eyes on the skull.
Not to get too far into that particular sense data inquiry, the relationship of mind to sense data and of reason to sense data is of interest for Christians; sanctification according to the measure of God's grace permits reason to develop a spiritual and eternal capacity rather than simply a temporal relation and capacity for reason-and that is a profound difference concerning actual individual and social human behavior.

Contemporary American psychology largely concerns empirical and temporal reason and physiological relations of mind to body and sense data. Because it is fundamentally empirical it has lent itself to an anti-eternal bias. It is like Plato without a realm of forms, or Socratic virtue without eternal reason. As American psychology is a temporal and reductionist study discovering 'mechanical' or innate causality for sense data and cognitive processing it has tended to move toward a fracturization of reason in the temporal and nihilation of reason concerning eternal, non-phenomenal things.
That observation isn't new of course. David Hume was the first of philosophers to formalize the maxim that if a book isn't about sense data input, concrete things one should burn it as sophistry. That point of view seems commensurate with contemporary British imperialism through corporatism and the destruction and degradation of civilian rights, morals and reason in order to default to rule by financial elites without actual democracy being developed.

Baxter has a great page or two (actually most all of them are compared to much writing today) describing the fundamental state of human reason in comparison to that of brutes (or purely materialistic feminists and others seeking pure class ego advancement and advantage without reason of eternal values).

The quote from chapter eight, direction 1; "Reason is dethroned by sin; and the will is left unguided and unguarded to the rapes of sensual violence. Reason must be restored, before sense will be well governed; for what else must be their immediate governor? it is no sin for brutes to live by sense, because they have not reason to rule it; and in man it is ruled more or less, as reason is more or less restored. When reason is only cleared about things temporal (as in men of worldly wisdom,) there sense will be mastered and ruled as to such temporal, as far as they require it. But where is reason is sanctified, there sense is ruled to the ends of sanctification, according to the measure of grace."

I think the development of reason is not so well respected today by select elites though there is more knowledge than ever before. There is perhaps a variegated advance along the social front regarding knowledge, reason and spiritual discernment that does not occur at an equal pace everyplace on Earth in space and time. So if reason falls victim now and then to politics and mass psychology martinets, it probably recovers eventually after some mayhem and destruction, despair and chaos. The U.S.A. presently has a non-reasoning sense-data kind of foreign policy vectors in the Middle-East and Ukraine, and the President has levered through homosexual marriage and a homosexual nominee for Secretary of the Army. Since pre-trib evangelicals also are simplistic and non-reasoning enough concerning their choice of eschatology it seems apropos that so much of U.S. foreign policy and domestic social development is off-balance and non-reasoning about eternal values and principles. Maybe that will again change yet one should never misunderestimate the powers of mass error under the tutelage of the broadcast media. One cannot expect Americans all to be John Rambo disregarding pain as easily as the mythical Buddhist monk for whom all is illusory and when the bell tolls it is silent or no bell at all. It is possible however to develop reason about the senses such that objectivity concerning the senses and sense data builds up. For Christians original sin tolls the bell for all and thee, yet it is not the signal for an, unreasoning temporal spree. Reason with an eye to the eternal world lets the Lord shield one with grace . From sense data that would overcome reason, and resonant bells sounding Satan hellish pace, the Lord Jesus navigates one through temporal, sensory shoals to the eternal place of God.


It is also the case that experience really changes reception of and reaction to sense data and empirical circumstance. Consider how one can prevent blisters from walking in boots through a variety of means, or that infected blisters can cause blood poisoning and death fairly swiftly. The naive walk right into disaster, while the experienced applying the benefit of knowledge with reason act to prevent such development from occurring. Christians too have innumerable sensory traps that might be avoided with reason and experience, and just relying upon the word of God, that are common and recurrent to all that experience life.

Concerning Baxter's Directions to Weak Christians for Their Establishment and Growth

There are numerous practical instructions in the second chapter of Richard Baxter's 'Ethics' for the safe development of an individual's Christian religious practice as he is new to the faith or young. The several points that Baxter makes are remarkably clear and apply to areas even beyond Christianity. This is another chapter with theology amidst the practical that is excellent for philosophically inclined Christians to encounter as well as anyone else.

Points such as the attraction of the new and novel to people, including religion, and how people may move after a time to the next new thing and fail to increase their understanding of God through the Lord Jesus Christ are plainly right. In contemporary politics forgetting the past and disregarding present points of view-if not suppressing them, that are politically inconvenient is standard operating procedure for the federal government. Farther into the chapter Baxter warns against leaping into every controversy and distracting oneself from deeper understanding of God. He illustrates the fact that several character traits may be overdeveloped in controversy, and I would think that the temporal view and circumstance may be overly accentuated eclipsing thereby the eternal. Too much ego can make one miss the subtly and immanent end of the temporal experience. Jesus Christ is the doorway to eternal life with God. That is an epiphenomena l and narrow circumstance, or extrusion of the eternal into the temporal that it is too easy to lose sight of if overly preoccupied with sundry social, or worldly concerns.
I think it was Baxter, yet perhaps it was Gentry, who wrote that worldly in the Biblical context, or 'the world' referred more to the social order and social reality than the geophysical. Worldliness can thus mean the social and temporal order. It is in the social and temporal order that controversy occurs and zeal for wrong ideas may develop. Zeal to prosecute doctrine that may be in error can lead to some great and marvelous irony.
Though Athenasius and Augustine basically held post-millennial viewpoints, and Jesus said that within his present generation all of the end times things described in Matthew would be done (and the Temple was destroyed about 37 years after crucifixion), there are millions and millions of pre-tribulationist Christians with zeal for the wrong eschatology. It is a great example of what Baxter was writing about in this second chapter of Ethics.
For example, creative adaptive pop-eschatology could consider it possible that the James Webb Space Telescope may catch first sight of a vast left-wing dragon seeking to put the bite on and consume a woman in space who will flee to the wilderness of Proxima Centauri for refuge. That is a long way from the sober partial preterist first century interpretation of Matthew's eschatology and that of the Revelation.
"And they worshiped the dragon, because he gave his authority to the beast; and they worshiped the beast, saying, ‘Who like the beast, and who is able to wage war with him?”" (Rev. 13:4).

"It is evident that the initial, paradigmatic role, extreme cruelty, and length of Nero’s persecution of Christianity fit well the role required in Revelation for the Beast. Nero did wage “war with the saints” to “overcome them” (Rev. 13:7). And he is the only Roman emperor of the first century to have done such. Not only so but he did it for the length of time specified in the Revelational record: 42 months. Surely Nero is before us in Revelation 13 as the specific manifestation of the Beast."-Gentry, page 55 The Beast of Revelation

It is possible to create and offer a course in first century Christian prophecy and prophecy fulfillment that would illuminate the tremendous, living power of God to structure, decree and fulfill events in world history. There are few accurate presentations of preterist, post-millennial paradigmata from Matthew and the Revelation brought to the public in concise form that summarize the incredible accuracy of Jesus and John. Kenneth Gentry describes all of the criterion in two books; The Beast of Revelation, and He Shall Have Dominion, yet too few Christians ever encounter or read those books. In other words most Christians don't know the truth about their own religion, and what a difference it makes. Imagine if people thought the prophecies of the Old Testament were never fulfilled and were yet to occur.

Some Christians await a Jewish sort of Messianic paradigm to emerge as if they were zealots expecting an imperial ruler; something like the Emperor-Dragon with the Caesar's made in his image to rule with an iron fist and put down evil opposition. Instead a gradual build up of Christians to a majority of the population will occur even though pre-tribbers expect a doom and dwindling of believers until a new Anti-Christ world ruler takes over like Nero of old. What a difference.


A Secular Syria and Other Fantasy Sports Plans

U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry said that the United States and Russia share the same goal of transitioning to a secular Syrian state that is stable. Some would like to have the Moon made into green cheese, and that may be equally likely. The administration should take a look ahead and imagine a post-Alawite, Sunni Syrian state.

The fundamental orientation of Middle Eastern states is that of sectarianism. Sunni states do not tolerate Shi'a mosques and vice versa. Muslims do not tolerate Jews except if absolutely necessary, and few tolerate Christians except as an oppressed minority. The best prospects for a secular Middle Eastern state was that of Saddam Hussein's Iraq. The inventor of Baathist secular socialist politics was from Syria. Re-establishing a Syrian socialist party with no religion too may be an Obama administration goal, yet it seems completely daft or disingenuous.

No one in the U.S. administration seems able to comprehend that removing the Assad and Alawite government from Syria-perhaps in order to liberate 140 billion dollars in gold bullion the Assad Government is rumored to have-will result in the purge of all sects besides the winning Sunni, and that won't promote stability. Once the Alawi and Christians are purged from Syria by U.S. design or malevolent negligence it would be impossible for them to lead any kind of return to power. The effective real Von Kerry plan is a permanent transition to a new Sunni state in Syria and that won't be at all stabilizing.

Instead the most likely outcome is for a steady transition to a right, conservative fundamentalist Sunni government that seeks overthrow of Saudi, Jordanian and Gulf States royal government. It would also pressure Turkey to become more fundamentalist and end its pro-western tilt. A secular Sunni Syria would need a western puppet military dictator to exist at all other than a Baathy socialist dictator of a cruel disposition.

Turkey 's leadership generally has favored westernism since the defeat of the Ottoman Empire when the young turks saw the writing on the wall of the future. A Christian, white Europe with a better military and technology was a better direction than affiliation with backward Muslim powers. That situation is changing though. It ought to be recalled that western leaning military leadeship in non-royal Sunni states is the primary reason why Pakistan, Egypt and Turkey are not led by clerics. I will not include Asian muslim nations in that paradigm, though they purge minorities too.

The Obama administration support for the Syrian civil war has stimulated a flood of Muslim migrants to a more godless, atheist and secularist Europe while the fortunes of Muslim states including Iran and Palestine is rising. Turkish fundamentalist may feel the pressure and opportunity to terminate secular leadership in turkey in the years ahead-especially in a decade or two when Iran resumes producing nuclear weapons components and a populist Shi'a fundamentalist clergy remains highly influential politically.

A post-Assad Syrian government will be implicitly unstable except as it is dominated by one power. Since the Allenby-Balfour era the former tribalism within an Ottoman Empire that had kept a state of peace generally existing has not existed. The nation-states created by the British at the end of the first world war that excluded the Kurds from having a homeland in the Middle East have been often in conflict within and without, and several times protagonists have been involved in conflict with Israel. Tribal and ethnic collective associations remained the basic foundation of every Middle Eastern state; the Lennonist dream of doped atheist citizens in godless prosperity mindlessly glowing under Imperial rule remains nothing more than a slithering p.r. dream for the Obama administration and Sect. Kerry that cannot be fulfilled by arming thousands of rebels to subvert the lawful Syrian government. Not even a U.S. army under a homosexual Sect. of the Army could inspire Sunni militants to move farther toward the west. Recruiting of youth with 'Gay Uncle Sam Wants You' might not work in the Muslim world well, though it inspires those of Boston..

If the Syrian government is finally deposed the most likely aftermath would include Sunni leadership transition to cali0hate militancy and war upon Lebanon to drive the Shi'a out. Christians might be viewed as foes of Hezballah as well as ISIS and AL Qaeda of Syria that would perhaps have the same relation to the Next Syrian government as Hezballah does to Iran.

A protracted Lebanese civil war that would establish a Sunni majority and send Hezballah packing would permit a caliphate state from Lebanon to northern Iraq and even Turkey. Yet it would include Palestinian territories and Jordan as well in addition to Saudi Arabia.

Obviously Iran could act to interdict Sunni expansionism yet that would also fail to produce more than protracted conflicts that the United States could not end nor rationally take sides on, though some in Congress and perhaps in the White House would agitate bombing Middle Eastern targets for peace.

In some respects U.S. politics have evolved to be a fantasy league with bureaucrats versus the Uber Rich. Neither side regards the public as more than fantasy leagues players that should be manipulated to serve class victories. Foreign policy has fallen prey to the fantasy league too.


The most economical way to end the conflict sending Syrian refugees to Europe is to fund development of an international refugee state-perhaps in South Sudan-where the existing Sudanese could be given permanent native corporations and compensation while immigrant refugees provide security and economic development, and second to reinforce the Assad Government and simple back the ISIS clan out of Syria. Any extra land that international elements do not want to remain in Syrian control should be given to Kurds to form a Kurdish State. I had not mentioned that the Next Syrian Government of conservative Sunni terrorists will probably in time purge the Kurds from Turkey and Syria as anti-state elements, and that wouldn't be beneficial to American interests either.

Tuesday, September 15, 2015

Conserve U.S. Oil- Keep the Ban on Oil Exports

Since the terrible Carter years when the Arab and OPEC oil embargo made plain the scarcity of U.S. oil reserves the Congress has banned exports of remaining U.S. oil. That policy should remain in place even while perfidious politicians bought and paid for by global oil seek to kill the ban and punch holes in the reserved remaining buckets of domestic oil to let it leak out abroad. It is a viscous loss of industrial life blood that lets American plastic manufactures grow keeping the diminishing lamp of hope for a healthy and balanced economy without debt from falling into the ash heap of NPR story broadcasting.

Global oil might like to break the legs of America's remaining oil reserves so the nation could pay dearly in the future when oil prices rise. A decade or two may seem distant now, yet as they grow closer and the future past is like those objects in the rear view mirror that may be closer than you think, so becomes the future when the world's oil lay within the dar al harb and the dar al Islam.

It is true that Alaska has a few oil fields with potential to fuel U.S. gas guzzling for a year or two at full production. Those fields are located in areas of endangered species habitat and critical marginal areas that should be kept as anti-global warming thermal reserves. High arctic industrial and carbon monoxide exhaust is one of the most efficient ways to accelerate the demise of planetary health vis. human habitat and create desertification of the Midwest with interminable drought.

Responsible politicians should put away their hatred of U.S. oil reserves that make them seek to rid the nation of it as if it were some sort of disease better inflicted on foreign banks. U.S. oil reserves can be safely contained, as might nuclear waste (what ever happened to that federal nuclear waste storage project), deep underground until the time is right to use it for some constructive means in the future decades or centuries from today.The better place to dispose of fossil fuel emissions isn’t the atmosphere or sea-that much is certain. Jobs can be created with ecological economic and value theory change innovations to let capitalism serve the public interest better in the U.S.A.

Monday, September 14, 2015

Russian Contributions to Mid-East Stability

Some are concerned about Russia tank delivery to Syria. Although none besides God can say with complete certainty what the future will be (because he has the power to change it), one can say that Russia will not attack Israel. Nor will Russia attack with Syrian proxies. ISIS and the Sunni extremists are the main threat to Israel today rather than the Shi'a even with the bluster from Iran now and then. Because Iran has supported Hebollah and they have attacked Israel some regard that as a greater danger than it is. What it is is complex regional politics.

Some in the arms industry want protracted low-intensity conflict with Russia to increase arms sales. Russia makes the only reliable space transport and support some conservative moral elements. It is not in U.S. interest to continue bad relations with Russia whenever they can.It is a policy that the spoilt and content might use if overly challenged when it comes to inclusive, creative prosperity and ecospheric economic policy initiatives.

Western Europe (EC) in labeling Israeli goods manufactured in West bank territories captured in war is in effect acting to promote a boycott of Israeli exports -that is hostile. U.S. policy that promotes regime change in Syria is counterproductive to U.S. and Western security, in addition to being anti-Israel through promotion of Middle Eastern chaos. It was and is daft policy. There is no 'regime change' for Syria that would be better than that of Iraq-it would be far worse and advance ethnic cleansing. It is not a good idea to establish a Sunni caliphate across the middle east inclusive of Syria-that would be bad for Israel. People have little sense about politics and stability-regardless if they are Muslim or Christian apocalypticists or just godless leftist atheists.

Obama Foreign Policy Expands the Dar al Harb

President Obama's foreign policy seems to be primarily to expand the dar al harb and the dar al Islam. Anyone might have guessed that stimulating civil war in Syria would generate millions of refugees and last at least a decade. One also could guess that Turks would attack Kurds in Iraq and Syria and work against Kurdish interests in Iraq as well as in the establishment of a Kurdish state.

Europeans seem to be moving further toward the left. Elton John is making eyes at President Putin of Russia over the Ukraine...He expects that a meeting with the Russian leader would bring assault him with so much charisma that he would give up the 1000 year patrimony of the heart of Russia. The left today seem to undermine civilian rights and promote those of the wealthy and authoritarianism paradoxically.

In an era of rampant libertinism that goes too far the main casualty tends to be civilian rights; not special race or gender rights-just plain civilian rights as imperialism increases its hold over society via Britain and the concentration of wealth. Flooding Europe with Muslim refugees-Saudi Arabia has offered to build 200 new mosques in Europe, will not only create long term terrorist potential; it undermines the financial and social rights of the poor that have needed to struggle against aristocracy and concentrated wealth and power for hundreds of years.

The Democrat party is like a shill for the most wealthy class of globalists that are far more concerned with globalism than the interests of the poor and middle class of the United States. This is a very odd era in U.S. history that seems to lack any sort of competent and pragmatic national-interest focused political leadership. Real political refugees may be some of the most productive people there are, yet they need a nation of there own to build up and live in that also would help an impoverished region. I think that the nation could be South Sudan.

The South Sudanese could be citizens in a new internationally supported refugee welcoming ecological economic inventing country with secure borders. If the new refugee state prospers it would be inundated with illegal job-seeking immigrants, so strong borders would need to be enforced and create a lot of jobs. All citizen-refugees would have dual citizenship including citizenship in their unwelcoming home nation that forced them out with oppression, derision and danger, in case the people at home ever change or are vaporized and they get a chance to return to lead a normal life.

The world has many troubles, yet the Democrat Party seems to exacerbate rather than solve any. Iraq seems to be in a troubled state too, and it needs more than just soldiers, MRE's and drones from the U.S.A.

Sunday, September 13, 2015

A Paradigm Evaluation of Richard Baxter's Practical Works

The Practical Works of Richard Baxter comprise four large books. The pdf files that Google made of Baxter's Practical Works comprise twenty-three volumes. Therefore a 30-page paper must be something of a survey rather than a comprehensive analysis of so much writing.

I found a Nook book modern version of Baxter's Practical Works for .99 cents that eliminates the difficulties in reading the 1825 version via Harvard and Google. Unfortunately one cannot transfer a Nook book to a PC.

Baxter has so many peers that were excellent Christian reformed writers like Watson and Brooks that I was a little put off initially by his style so full of 'directions' . Yet that first impression quickly disappeared as I learned about the personality of Richard Baxter and his personal experiences and methods of addressing the challenges of his day. His style is to my knowledge unique amidst the Christian theological writers; he might be a street-wise Christian sociologist writing to the saved and lost alike. He is more than that; the good conscious with good information writing the truth.

Baxter may be regarded, I think, as a contemporary of the French rationalist philosopher Rene Descartes. Descartes's Meditations treat of the mind from 'first principles'-a self awareness reflection of what might be known in mind itself-as if without learning and experience one might not be an idiot. Baxter treats the mind with a comparative dualism though-Cartesian dualism is a cliché sort of philosophical genre. Baxter has the mind or spirit in distinction to the 'sensitive' or sensual/sensing. I think that the sensitive is the body with its sensory nature.

I would not make a large issue or over-stress the Baxter criteria of spirit vs sensitive. it is possibly the case that it is not a physical versus mental distinction that he intended to describe. It may be that it is simply a behavioral choice of how to use one's own existence.

These are perennial issues. Sartre in Being and Nothingness continues Descartes's inquiries to describe all experience subjectively as mental experience. He does go so far as to include the body as a mental experience. Even if it is physical, subjective awareness of the body is completely mental. A brain dead individual has no more experience of the body than does a statue.

So in a way, there are similar points in Baxter's and Sartre's epistemology-each regard the mind-body distinction as in fact two parts of one nature. One knows the animal or corporeal side with mind, even as the spiritual side is mind in-itself and self-cognition. In chapter eight section one Baxter provides directions for the government of the senses. His point of view is comparable to that of Socrates regarding virtue as superior to sensuality. Baxter wrote that reason must govern the senses and that in the unsaved the senses tend to be prior to reason. He wrote that brutes are ruled by the senses and have no sense of guilt that must arise within reason for brutish behavior. His opinion is that sanctification occurs primarily within reason, and that with reason one must pursue heaven and things of God; subordinating the senses to reason so far as possible.

Contemporary physics has several issues wherein the practical difference between and unobserved side is effectively no a meaningful question. Perhaps that pertains in the mind-body two-aspects of one nature renormalization too. One never experiences a body without a mind, though the mind does have a subconscious that influences and computes data for the conscious mind. Virtual reality and phenomenal spacetime experiences may be unique and have meaning as living things for-oneself that occur as events greater than the sum of the parts. People that are pure materialists might ask how material evolutions can generate spirit with incredulity while being aware of the limits to knowledge of mass and energy's ultimate origins (besides saying that it appears from a mysterious field out of nowhere that existed from eternity-and that seems like borrowing from Genesis) and that spirit too might be phenomenal, contingent and emergent.

Gershner's wondered if man's spirit might not be phenomenal, since if it could not really be eternal in the same sense as God's, and it could not have coexisted forever like the trinity. If the mind or spirit is comparable to a computer operating system, one made by God yet unlike a computer actually a living spirit, it could be continued forever in one direction of eternity at least-like an infinite line originating at a Cartesian point location 0,0.

Baxter writes thousands of lines of good, practical advice and directions about how the spiritual should overcome, with the grace of the Holy Spirit, the sensitive and its predisposition to sin. If the mind-body problem is not so much a dualism of substances and is more of a circumstance of a unified mind with a sensitive corporeal extension as body that is known with mind/spirit, is it easy to understand Paul's paradigm of sin persisting through the sensitive (body) even as he was being spiritually sanctified . '

Gershner talked about the spirit going directly to heaven at death, yet the new and improved, fit-for-eternity body is not returned to unification with the spirit until the day of judgment. I believe that the body at that time will lack the capability of having characteristics of sensations that God would regard as sin. Though heaven will be a joyful experience forever for worshiping God, it is probably not a place where one would worry about mind-body dualism.

Since I am commenting on Baxter and society then and now via Schopenhauer, I will add that Schopenhauer and Nietzsche are equally aliens to the Nazi Universe. The Nazis were pure animals devoid of spirit. Hitler's fascism was that of plain self-interest assertive tribalism; another ancient social mode. Nietzsche wrote a book titled appropriately to the era 'Twilight of the Gods'. That title was apropos for Nietzsche and Schopenhauer's affectation with Zarathustrianism and ancient religions. Each philosopher were of the last of the west aqssociated with ancient eastern faiths. Plainly Neitzsche included Christianity in the genre of ancient religions in twilight too. He foresaw a world arising not unlike Schopenhaur's evil Universe were evil animal spirits would dominate all of society as supermen.

While the ancient religions of the east were dying and scientific atheism arising in the west, a paralell reactive populism of romanticism. escapism and faithlessness appeared' then and now. faithless eras tend toward submergence and transmogrification of faith in populism, irrationalism and imperialism. The breakdown of social morality leads into imperialism or other forms of authoritarianism as personal boundaries, social borders and extreme libertinism permits elites to rule with prima facie benevolence from a financial distance with concentrated wealth and Universalism.

Christianity is true, and the open door to God through the Son. Baxter recognizes and replies to numerous problems of unbelief and reasons with readers about them. If Nietzsche and Schopenhauer lived in the twilight of the Gods era. Americans and Europeans live in Elton John's 'N.Y. Times said God is dead era.' Modern man has built several institutional biases against Christianity today that make it difficult for pastors and theologians to enable faith and belief to appear amidst to lost secularists given over to scientifically cultured animal spiritlessness. It is a reactionary animal status with recurrent attitudes against spirit. It is irrational materialism motivated by physics and quantum energy. It is matter with transformative equivalence into energy. It yields itself to quantum phenomena and monads as infinite small mathematical points overcome with quantum nominalism. Society is spiritual destroyed and a supermen like Olympian Bruce Jenner transformed into a bride of Frankenstein doll representing nothing more than mass. Social management and society are depersonalized as quantum phenomena. It is another mass disaster looking for a place to happen.
With some reading of Ethics I formed an opinion that Baxter writes like a scholastic theologian such as Aquinas, except his theology is limited to Barth's criterion of theology being strictly scripture based. Baxter reasons and develops points rather methodically including proofs for the existence of God, yet these points in his writing to graceless unconverted sinners are not of a dry, academic style. They are practical, polished pedagogic prose understandable to anyone literate.

There are four primary texts comprising the Practical Works of Richard Baxter. They are Ethics, Economics, Ecclesiastics, and Politics. The first; Ethics, is on my book book of 3500 pages. Of course with a lesser type font size it may be reduced to a thousand pages. The original 1825 edition is of about 526 pages I seem to recall. There are this many ways to write a 30 page paper; several approaches that could be developed would present various accents and insights of value. Instead of writing a paper a mile wide and an inch deep in content, I will concentrate more on the first volume; Ethics, and save the other three volumes for another work, if should ever happen to get to that.

Presently I have numerous theology books of reformed writers that I have not had the opportunity to read. In modern America with all of the absolutely idiotic foreign policy approaches and domestic economic administrative perfidy regarding purpose and method it would be somewhat remarkable to just disregard news broadcasts and contemporary concerns that do seem to stupid and misdirected and simply read reformed theologians from four-hundred years past in some cases. That does seem a healthy and definitely edifying choice however. Some time in the future I hope to read all of the Economics, Ecclesiastics and Politics even while the electro-magnetic spectrum of rave politics is passing overhead like drone propaganda stealth fighters.

Baxter's introduction, or advertisement at the start of his vast publication, is interesting reading. I am sure there are expert historians of the period that would know fat more than I about the time. Baxter wrote the four part book in 1664-1665, though he wrote far more on contiguous matters that were not completed before his death.

The Westminster Standards were assembled beginning in 1643 under the Presbyterian-Puritan dominated Long Parliament during the English Civil War. Cromwell eventually rose to power and forced out the Presbyterians. One history comments that Cromwell favored independency, and Gill for example also appeared to favor congregationalism rather than Presbyterianism that some theologians believe is not a valid church office-that is, it is out of compliance with first century Christian ecclesiastical intent.

In 1660 the monarchy was restored. Episcopacy and subscription to it was required for pastors.

Thomas Watson and perhaps Baxter continued being banned from pubic preaching I would think. There was an Indulgence in 1672 that let non-conformist ministers return to public work.

Baxter's advertisement at the start of his work where we learn that he was forbidden by law to preach is a qualification and explanation for the form and history of development of the work. It is a remarkable piece in-itself.

Baxter had no library with him for references and quotes. He points out that he thus avoids charges of plagiarism. The Google photocopy version of Baxter's writings that I have will not apparently allow me to copy and paste any quotations from Practical Divinity, so I cite a technical reason for not making lengthy quotations in the present paper.*

Baxter opined that people complain if he writes too little and complain if he writes too much. Some criticize his promulgation of directions as too holier-than-thou an lacking humility. Baxter basically said that he was just being practical and providing instructions to those that need them.

Against charges of pride and self-conceit for writing so much Baxter replies that it is unfortunate that so much is wonted. Baxter notes that there is too much to remember therefore he wrote it down. Baxter accounts for the several ways in which his work is criticized from offending the godly to offending the zealous with his pacific, unifying air. If Baxter had lived in more stable times in a continuum of religious and theocratic settlement he probably would not have written with the apparent blunt eloquence that he did. When government and leadership classes change rather swiftly in historical terms the bureaucratic sycophants of church and state haven't sufficient time to get their stores straight to follow along with whatever it is they believe the rich and powerful want delivered unto their eyes and ears. Baxter had to write what he thought as a kind of principle of the faith-a facsimile 17th century disciple of Christ, writing like James to the people of his day.

Yet lest I appear too hasty to hagiographize St. Baxter I will point out that he was of the generation of reformers that began with compilation of the Westminster Standards during the period of Presbyterian domination of the Long Parliament before the rise of Cromwell who preferred more non-conformist Puritans I think-John Bunyan was in his cabinet I see to recall. In other words, without being kicked out of the insider set Baxter might not have ever taken up the pen to produce his voluminous works. In that regard Baxter is more like Israel when the physical Temple was not available for worship, becoming more into the written form.

* I have since found that a .txt file of Baxter's books, at least on ethics, is available on-line. So I downloaded it and found it full of typo errors that are probably a result of taking the pdf Google photocopy version of the 1825 publication in the Harvard Library and running it through a photo-into-text program that misunderstood many words/spellings. Even so it is a very helpful text and potentially can be corrected by someone with the time to do so.

I have corrected a portion of Baxter's writing that I will reprint in the commentary on chapter one- to unconverted, graceless sinners. My intention is to comment on each of the ten primary sections of Baxter's 'Ethics', in the order in which they appear in his book.

Baxter's writing, as one proceeds through the Ethics, reads like a good conscience comprising an armor-of-God defense ensemble against every sort of wicked attack that might arise, so far as possible, without especially seeming so. It is challenging to imagine anyone writing such a work today with even a portion of the acuity and effectiveness.

Even so it is a little amusing to consider how some Christian with a philosophical, theological and pastoral inclination might approach reinforcing contemporary Christians and unbelievers-the graceless, unwashed or overly body-washed, disposable culture, neo-sophisticated pseudo-globalist corporatist followers of existential multi-isms-in a world with a multi-cultural, networked, scientifically stamped Satanic over-weaning and ubiquitous enemy.

One might consider the philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer a little for insight. People so far as they know who Schopenhauer was-The author of The World as Will and Idea, regard him as a misogynist. He threw some woman down a stairway-it might have been his land-lady demanding rent-it is difficult to know. Reading Schopenhauer in a feminist error is generally condemned as anyone doing so must be regarded as misogynist too-a hater of women sympathizer or embodiment example of the kind that have oppressed women for millennia.

Arthur Schopenhauer was actually a brilliant as well as an anachronistic philosopher at the same time-quite and achievement. He is also known as a pessimist. His ego was rather large occasionally too-in his introduction to The Principle of Sufficient Reason e describes himself as the greatest philosopher in Europe I seem to recall, and laments that he is not recognized as such.

Schopenhauer had a well developed sense of self in a difficult period in Germany, and it must be recalled that the average life span was about 25 then and people dies young a lot with social ethics often being based on the use of force to keep order and expel disorder micro-and macro-socially. Being a philosopher couldn't have been well paying,yet some intelligent guys might strive for that sort of thing. Some more well known philosophers were wealthy or of a class able to consort with the wealthy-and of course that tradition isn't entirely historical yet continues to a certain extent though the prosperity of the middle class has made professional philosophy rather common.

Schopenhauer's Principle of Sufficient Reason' is the most brilliant and perhaps one of the very few things written after Kant's 'Critique of Pure Reason' that continues the work of the Critique in rather concrete terms. While much commentary was written about the Critique and the summary 'Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics' , little if anyone else besides Schopenhauer understood it so well as to be able to continue the work and apply it somewhat with a few interesting proofs. Unfortunately for Schopenhauer his 120 pages or so of interesting reading in The Principle of Sufficient Reason' was not all that he wrote.

Schopenhauer's anachronistic side was in his religious and philosophical world-view that exceed by far the rather technical philosophical Kantianism in The Principle. It is as if another philosopher existed within his own brain-as if he dual booted two philosophical-mind operating systems; one of ultra-modern (in that era) epistemology and the other of the most ancient religious and philosophical dualism. It is Schopenhauer's dualism that let to his misogyny.

Like ancient Romans and those of other societies, Schopenhauer believed women were inferior, shorter, broad-based beings disfavored by the dime-urge that created the world. Like Hindus and Buddhist Schopenhauer believed the world is illusory or very contingent being. Like the Zoroastrians with the perennial battle being good and evil deities Schopenhauer believed that good and evil were in conflict regarding the whole of creation that is commonly called the Universe. Schopenhauer however believed that evil had won and the world is entirely evil.

Schopenhauer also believed that it is a bad thing to be born into the evil world. Their sins of women were either carried over from prior lives and their form was a kind of karmic pay-back, or perhaps some evil demi-urge simply chose them to be in such wretched form. Schopenhauer thought that everything in existence is evil I suppose, and that further the world is an evil place and hence the people in it to including women must be wicked. This idea is not the same as original sin, yet is important to recognize that Schopenhauer's late 18th and early 19th century ideas were in a way last-generation syncretistic archetypes of some very ancient and wide-spread ideas from across Eurasia. He seemed to have no sense of Reformed Christian ideas nor even of Darwinism. I would guess that if Schopenhauer learned of evolution paradigmata from pre-Darwinian scientific philosophers-and such existed, he would have viewed the human phenomena of being as some sort of grotesque morphing of broken and misshapen forms wherein over the tragedy of time everything expresses itself in agony, wickedness and pathos and dies after oozing forth another generation of poor players walking and strutting about for an hour on stage forgetting its pathetic lines.

Moderns I suppose regard women as more phenomenal, though not statuesque, than as competition creatures of less ability and with juicy attributes. In post-dark ages Europe continuing to America clothing sometimes was made to give one a larger appearance-how tall was Abe Lincoln with a stove-pipe hat? Presently women are viewed I think as phenomenal evolutionary creatures of beauty, yet almost never as somewhat wicked neo-dwarf spawn of a wicked demi-urge being punished for sins of past-lives. It is a little amusing that in the abeyance of primitive competition, women become more competitive in society. If their skulls were as thick as those of men, they too would probably want a pro-football league to incur brain damage from helmet-to-helmet collisions.

Of all the statuary made in ancient Rome, 99% was destroyed or ground up for construction. Those pagan once-painted pieces of the ancient world remaining today are faded reminders that some made caryatids of women holding up society while some ancient Greeks also thought of them in a way similar to Schopenhauer. While the cult of Dionysus was making human sacrifices Sappho was writing beautiful dactylic hexameter. The world was as confused and variegated socially then as now. It was more dangerous from natural causes and crime, yet not capable of mass destruction. Human society itself because of its economic methods assures mass-species extinctions and alteration of the entire ecosystem. The Christian religion is failing to adapt and upgrade because their is no pressing need or  Schmalkaldic War lurking, to post-millennialism , Genesis time scales comprehensive of general relativity, and a priesthood of believers with just three offices in which all members progress supported by planetary attendance records and support networks. It seems like a comedy of ignorance, tragic in many respects, yet one that God can and will attend to in his own time.

In modern society, after evolving through symbolic logic, scientific empiricism, evolutionary capitalism and authoritarian mass-market government, existential consumerism and Hollywood brave-new-world militarism and patriotism, ordinary people have become clustered in cities and suburbs while the wilderness has become eroded with the greatest mass species die-off in 65 million years resulting from human demographic and technical sprawl. Christian theologians may encounter incorrect creation theory of their own, incorrect eschatology and incorrect ecclesiastic and lack the reforming vigor of 16th and 17th century reformers to change it in order to move closer to understanding the truth of scripture. A reformer's insight into scripture could produce a modern church that would be relevant rather than apocalyptic or museum like.

I believe that Schopenhauer's intellectual and social paradigm is in some ways illustrative as a kind of archetype of men and women in present day America. He was in some ways brilliant, with a sense of the divine yet overcome by the pervasiveness of perceived evil, uncertain of any sort of truth, tentative and syncretistic on epistemology and metaphysics, and in some respects pagan.

With the active presence of Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit Arthur Schopenhauer was too much like the general run of humanity in that day, and perhaps in all times, and too willing to tolerate wickedness. Like Ivan Karamazov talking with his monk-brother Alyosha in a restaurant, people may express themselves as cultured, worldly skeptics ready to say, like Bill Clinton-'been there, done that' as they have moved through their 'bucket list' before time expires. Unlike modern Americans with such willingness to be irresponsible that they allow imperialism to return to the nation through British globalism and the concentration of wealth, Schopenhauer with his wrong religious metaphysics or Nietzsche with his somewhat comparable Zaratustrian bent, those German philosophers were not terribly happy unsuccessful in success writers of ideas. Americans too have Andy Warhol kind of mass-produced pop lives these days though the tomato-cans are splattered more in movies than in Vietnam. It is difficult to communicate with these people in drive-in churches with parking lots full of nice cars, and ministers with gel goop on their hair, sometimes with nice homes that have never known a day of hardship or sleeping outside involuntarily.

Even American intellectuals may have complex mind-collages with large elements of mass production. Christianity is not mass-produced however. God transcends every material thing and human construct or even expression from any pastor. Baxter's directions are a continuous conscientious coaching to return to thinking about God and the will of God for human conduct and salvation unto eternal life. Who can write like that today? Who can write with sufficient knowledge of how the ecosphere works, of how society works, of who cosmology works to the limit of modern physics, with complete understanding of scripture so far as the grace of God permits adequate learning to resemble nominal completeness of the major points at least?

Fortunately Baxter's Practical Works are still relevant today.

Part I - Christian Ethics

"Chapter 1: Directions to Unconverted, Graceless Sinners, For the Attainment of Saving Grace"
Following is a typo corrected version along with a few usage updates I made to an excerpt from this section of Baxter's 'Practical Divinity';

quote-" If ungodly, miserable sinners were as few, as the devil and their self-love would make themselves believe, I might forbear this part of my work as needless. For the whole need not the physician, but the sick. If you go into twenty families, and ask them all. Whether any of them are in an unsanctified state, unrenewed and unpardoned, and under the wrath and curse of God? you will meet with few that will not tell you, they hope it is better with them than so; and thou they are sinners, as all are, yet that they are repenting, pardoned sinners. Nay, there is scarce one of many of the most wicked and notoriously ungodly, but hope they are in a penitent, pardoned state. Even the haters of God will say they love him ; and the scorners at godliness will say that they are not ungodly; and that it is but hypocrisy and singularity that they deride:: and it were well for them, if saying so would go for proof, and he that will be their judge would take their words.

But God will not be deceived, though foolish men are wise enough to deceive themselves. Wickedness will be wickedness when it hath clothed itself with the fairest names : God will condemn it when it hath found out the most plausible pretenses and excuses. Though the ungodly think to bear it out in pride and scorn, and think to be saved by their hypocritical lip-service, as soon as the most holy worshipers of the Lord, yet "shall they be like chaff which the wind driveth away: they shall not be able to stand in judgment, nor sinners in the congregation of the righteous*." And if God know better than foolish men, then certainly the flock is little to whom the "Father will give the kingdom'*." And "wide is the gate, and broad is the way that leadeth to destruction, and many there be that go in thereat": because strait is the gate, and narrow is the way which leadeth unto life, and few there be that find it."

When Christ was asked, "Lord, are there few that be saved?" he answered, "Strive to enter in at the strait gate ; for many I say unto you, will seek to enter in, and shall not be able." But, alas! we need no other information than common experience, to tell us whether the greatest part of men be holy and heavenly, and self-denying; that seek first the kingdom of God and his righteousness, and love God above all, and will forsake all they have for the sake of Christ, and undoubtedly none but such are saved; as you may see Heb. xii. 14. Matt. vi.20, 21. 33.

Seeing then the godly are so few, and the ungodly so many; and that God will take nothing for holiness that is not such indeed ; and seeing it is so terrible a thing to any man that hath his wits about him, to live one day in an unconverted state, because he that dieth so, is lost for ever; methinks it should be our wisdom to be suspicious of ourselves, and careful lest we be deceived in so great a business, and diligent in searching and examining our hearts, whether they are truly sanctified or not ; because it can be no harm to make sure work for our salvation ; whereas presumption, carelessness, and negligence, may betray us to remediless misery and despair.

I do not here suppose the reader to have any such acquaintance with his heart, or care of his salvation, or obedient willingness to be taught by Jesus Christ, as is proper to those that are truly sanctified ; for it is ungodly persons to whom I am now speaking. And, yet, if I should not suppose them to have some capacity and disposition to make use of the Directions which I give them, I might as well pass them by, and spare my labour. I tell thee therefore, reader, what it is that I presuppose in thee, and expect from thee, and I think thou wilt not judge me unreasonable in my suppositions and expectations.

1. I suppose thee to be a (hu)man, and therefore that thou has reason and natural free-will (that is, the natural faculty of choosing and refusing), which should keep thy sensitive appetite in obedience; and that thou art capable of loving and serving thy Creator, and enjoying him in everlasting life.

2. I suppose that thou knowest thyself to be a (hu)man; and therefore that thy sensitive part, or flesh, should no more rule thee, or be ungoverned by thee, than the horse should rule the rider, or be unruled by him ; and that thou understandest that thou art made on purpose to love and serve thy Maker, and to be happy in his love and glory for ever. If thou know not this much, thou knowest not that thou art (hu)man, or else knowest not what a (hu)man is.

3. I suppose thee to have a natural self-love, and a desire of thy own preservation and happiness; and that thou has no desire to be miserable, or to be hated of God, or to cast out of his favour and presence into hell, and there to be tormented with devils everlastingly: yea, I will suppose that thou art not indifferent whether thou dwell in heaven or hell, in joy or torment; but would fain be saved and happy; whether thou be godly or ungodly, wise or foolish; I will be bold to take all this for granted: and I hope in I this i do not wrong thee.

4. I suppose thee to be one that knowest that thou did not make thyself; nor give thyself that power or wisdom which thou has; and that he that made thee and all the world, must needs be before all the world; and that he is eternal, having no beginning (for if ever there had been time when there was nothing, there never would have been any thing; because nothing can make nothing); and I suppose thou dost confess that all the power, and wisdom, and goodness of the whole creation set together, is less than the power, and wisdom, and goodness of the Creator; because nothing can give more than it hath to give. I suppose, therefore, that thou dost confess that there is a God ; for to be eternal, infinite Being, and the most powerful, wise, and good and the first cause of all created being, and power, wisdom. and goodness, this (with the subsequent relations to the creature) is to be GOD. If thou wilt deny that there is a God. thou must deny that thou art a (hu)man, and that there is any (hu)man, or any being*.

5. I suppose thou knowest that God, who gave a being unto all things, is by this title of creation, the absolute Owner or Lord of all : and that he that made the reasonable creatures, with natures to be governed, in order to a further end, is by that title, their supreme Governor; and therefore hath his laws commanding duty, and promising reward, and threatening punishment; and therefore will judge men according to these laws, and will be just in judgment, and in his rewards and punishments. And that he
that freely gave the creature its being, and all the good it hath, and must give it all that ever it shall have, is the Father or most bountiful Benefactor to his creatures. Surely I screw thee not too high in supposing thee to know all this; for all this is no more than that there is a God. For he is not God, if he be not the creator, and therefore our owner, our ruler, and benefactor, our absolute Lord, our most righteous governor, and our most loving father, or benefactor.

6. I suppose therefore that thou art convinced, that God must be absolutely submitted to, and obeyed before all others in the world, and loved above all friends, or pleasures, or creatures whatsoever. For to say, ' He is my Owner,' is to say, ' I must yield myself to him as his own:' to say, 'I take him for my supreme Governor,' is to say, that 'I will absolutely be ruled by him:' and to say, 'I take him as my dearest Father or chief Benefactor,' is to say, that 'I am obliged to give him my dearest love, and highest thanks:' otherwise you do but jest, or say you know not what, or contradict yourselves, while you say, 'He is your God.'

7. I suppose that thou art easily convinced, that in all the world there is no creature that can shew so full a title to thee as God ; or that hath so great authority to govern thee, or that can be so good to thee, or do so much for thee, as God can do, or hath done, and will do. if thou do thy part; and therefore that there is nothing to be preferred before him, or compared with him in our obedience or love: nor is there any that can save us from His justice, if we stand out against him.

8. I suppose that as thou knowest God is just, in his laws and judgements, so that he is so faithful that he will not, and so all-sufficient, that he need not deceive mankind, and govern them by mere deceit: this better beseems the devil, than God: and therefore that as he governeth man on earth by the hopes and fears of another life, he doth not delude them into such hopes or fears: and as he doth not procure obedience by any rewards or punishments in this life, as the principal means (the wicked prospering, and the rest being persecuted and afflicted here), therefore his rewards or punishments, must needs be principally hereafter in the life to come. For if he have no rewards and punishments, he hath no judgment ; and if he have no judgment, he hath no laws (or else no justice); and if he have no laws (or justice), he is no governor of man (or not a righteous governor) ; and if he be not our governor (and just), he is not our God ; and if he were not our God, we had never been his creatures, nor had a being, or been men'.

9. I suppose thou knowest that if God had not discovered what he would do with us, in the life to come,. yet man is highliest bound to obey and love his Maker, because he is our absolute Lord, our highest ruler, and our chief benefactor; and all that we are or have is from him. And that if man be bound to spend his life in the service of this God, it is certain that he shall be no loser by him, no not by the costliest obedience that we can perform ; for God cannot appoint us any thing that is vain ; nor can he be worse to us than an honest man, that will see that we lose not by his service. Therefore that God for whom we must spend and forsake this life, and all those pleasures which sensualists enjoy, hath certainly some greater thing to give us, in another life.

10. I may take it for granted at the worst, that neither thyself, nor any infidel in the world, can say that you are sure that there is not another life for man, in which his present obedience shall be rewarded, and disobedience punished. The worst that ever infidel could say was, that 'He thinketh that there is no other life.' None of you dare deny the possibility of it, nor can with any reason deny the probability. Well, then, let this be remembered while we proceed a little further with you.

11. I suppose or expect that you have so much use of sense and reason, as to know the brevity and vanity of all the glory and pleasures of the flesh; and that they are all so quickly gone, that were they greater than they are, they can be of no considerable value. Alas, what is time! How quickly gone, and then it is Nothing! and all things then are nothing which are passed with it! So that the joys or sorrows of so short a life, are no great matter of gain or loss.

I may therefore suppose that thou canst easily conclude,that the bare probability or possibility of an endless happiness, should be infinitely preferred before such transitory vanity, even the greatest matters that can be expected here; and that the probability or possibility of endless misery in hell, should engage us with far greater care and diligence to avoid it, than is due for the avoiding any thing that you can think to escape by sinning ; or any of the sufferings of this momentary life. If you see not this, you have lost your reason ; that the mere probability or possibility of a heaven and hell, should much more command our care and diligence, than the fading vanities of this dreaming, transitory life.

12. Well, then ; we have got thus far in the clearest light. You see that a religious, holy life, is every man's duty, not only as they owe it to God as their creator, their owner, governor, and benefactor; but also, because as lovers of ourselves, our reason commandeth us to have ten thousandfold more regard of a probable or possible joy and torment which are endless, than of any that is small and of short continuance. And if this be so, that a holy life is every man's duty, with respect to the life that is to come, then it is most evident, that there is such a life to come indeed, and that it is more than probable or possible, even certain.

For if it be but man's duty to manage this life, by the hopes and fears of another life, then it must follow, that either there is such a life to come, or else that God hath made it man's duty to hope, and fear, and care, and labour, and live in vain; and that he himself doth tantalize and cheat his creatures, and rule the world by motives of deceit, and make religion and obedience to our Maker to be a life of folly, delusion, and our loss. And he that believeth this of God, doth scarcely believe him to be God. Though I have mentioned this argument in another treatise, I think it not unmeet here to repeat it for thy benefit.

13. And seeing I suppose thee to be convinced of the life to come, and that man's happiness and misery is there, I must needs suppose that thou dost confess, that all things in this life, whether prosperity or adversity, honour or dishonour, are to be esteemed and used as they refer to the life to come. For nothing is more plain, than that the means are to have all their esteem and use in order to their end. That only is good in this life, which tendeth to the happiness of our endless life ; and that is evil indeed in this life, that tendeth to our endless hurt, and to deprive us of the everlasting good. And therefore no price or motive should hire us to sin against God, and to forfeit or hinder our endless happiness.

14. I may suppose, if thou have reason, that thou wilt confess that God cannot be too much loved, nor obeyed too exactly, nor served too diligently (especially by such backward sinners, that have scarce any mind to love or worship him at all) ; and that no man can make too sure of heaven, or pay too dear for it, or do too much for his salvation, if it be but that which God hath appointed him to do. And that you have nothing else that is so much worth your time, and love, and care, and labour. And therefore though you have need to be stopped in your love, and care, and labor for the world, because for it you may easily pay too dear, and do too much ; yet there is no need of stopping (humanity)men in their love, and care, and labour for God and their salvation ; which is worth more than ever we can do, and where the best are apt to do too little.

15. I also suppose thee to be one that knowest, that this present life is given us on trial, to prepare for the life that shall come after; and that as men live here, they shall speed for ever ; and that time cannot be recalled, when it is gone ; and therefore that we should make the best of it while we have it.

16. I suppose thee also to be easily convinced, that seeing man hath his reason and life for matters of everlasting consequence, his thoughts of them should be frequent and very serious, and his reason should be used about these things, by retired, sober deliberation.

17. And I suppose thee to be a man, and therefore so far acquainted with thyself, as that thou mayst know, if thou wilt, whether thy heart and life do answer thy convictions, and whether they are more for heaven or earth ; and therefore that thou art capable of self-judging in this case. Perhaps you will say, that while I am directing you to be holy, I suppose you to be holy first ; for all this seemeth to go far towards it. But I must profess that I see not any thing in all these suppositions, but what I may suppose to be in a heathen ; and that I think all this is but supposing thee to have the use of thy reason, in the points in hand.

Speak freely: Is there any one of all these points that thou canst or darest deny? I think there is not. And therefore if heathens and wicked men deny them in their practice, that doth but show that sin doth brutify them, and that, as men asleep, or in a crowd of business, they have not the use of the reason which they possess, in the matters which their minds are turned from.

18. Yea, one thing more I think I may suppose in all or most that will read this book ; that you take on you also to believe in Jesus Christ, and in the Holy Ghost the Sanctifier, and that the Scriptures are the Word of God, And if you do so indeed, I may then hope that my work is in a manner done, before I begin it: but if you do it but opinionatively and uneffectually, yet God and man may plead with you the truths which you profess. "


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